In any case, there is nonetheless a good deal of evidence to indicate that modafinil is producing at least a portion of its wakefulness-promoting effects by acting as a DRI, or at least via activation of the dopaminergic system. In support of modafinil acting as a dopaminergic agent, its wakefulness-promoting effects are abolished in DAT knockout mice (although it is important to note that DAT knockout mice show D 1 and D 2 receptor and norepinephrine compensatory abnormalities, which might confound this finding), reduced by both D 1 and D 2 receptor antagonists (although conflicting reports exist),  and completely blocked by simultaneous inactivation of both D 1 and D 2 receptors.  In accordance, modafinil shows full stimulus generalization to other DAT inhibitors including cocaine, methylphenidate, and vanoxerine, and discrimination is blocked by administration of both ecopipam (SCH-39166), a D 1 receptor antagonist, and haloperidol , a D 2 receptor antagonist.  Partial substitution was seen with the DRA dextroamphetamine and the D 2 receptor agonist PNU-91356A , as well as with nicotine (which indirectly elevates dopamine levels through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ). 
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Unfortunately, marijuana producers have a strong incentive to hook young users. While about 9 percent of adults who use cannabis become addicted, the rate is 17 percent for people who start smoking in their teens, according to NIDA figures. And as the tobacco and alcohol industries have demonstrated, she says, such companies make the majority of their profits on a relatively small proportion of chronic users. "The minute there's a profit motive, companies tend to make a product more addictive," says Lisdahl. "I think legalization is moving ahead prematurely without considering the lessons we've learned from nicotine and alcohol prevention policy research."